ASTRA Central and Eastern European Women’s Network for Sexual and Reproductive Rights and Health

The criminalization of sexuality and reproduction around the world is a major barrier to human rights, and denies millions of us our human dignity.

This is why Amnesty International has launched Body Politics: Criminalization of Sexuality and Reproduction, a new series of tools to empower activists worldwide to challenge criminalization and stand up for their rights.

What is criminalization of sexuality and reproduction?

The criminalization of sexuality and reproduction is when consensual sexual and reproductive actions and decisions, or the expression of sexual and gender identities, is restricted or punished.

Sometimes this happens through direct regulation, such as criminal bans on abortion. At other times, a range of laws and policies relating to public order or “morality” are used to indirectly police and punish sexual and reproductive choices or gender expression.

These laws can easily be abused. For example, criminalizing “adultery” violates human rights and can also put women who have been raped at risk of prosecution for sexual activity outside marriage.


Spotlight on rural women and girls during the Commission on the Status of Women will focus on critical issues such as ensuring adequate living standards, food and nutrition security, access to land, technology, education, health, and ending all forms of violence and harmful practices.

It is also needed to mention that no global progress can be reached without gender equality and women’s empowerment in rural areas. These are however impossible without universal access to sexual and reproductive health and recognition, fulfillment and protection of sexual and reproductive rights - especially safe abortion- with particular focus on rural women and young people.

The forum will be an opportunity to provide concrete suggestions on how to empower rural women and girls, making the promise of “leaving no one behind” of the 2030 Agenda for Sustainable Development a reality.

See the press release for CSW62 here and official website here

Follow the online debate via #CSW62, #feministvisions and #timeisnow 

Kvinna till Kvinna launched this week a very interesting report: “Suffocating the movement – shrinking space for women’s rights”. Due to growing nationalism, extremism and traditional values, women’s rights organizations are now facing major setbacks in their ability to work for gender equality and peace.

Through different tactics and methods, state and non-state actors are limiting our rights to act and express ourselves. For women, who normally are excluded from the political arena, the civil society is a key arena to work for change.

Read more about what this is, how women are affected and why it is happening in the report which includes input from our region; Macedonia, Azerbaijan, Poland and more.

Download the report “Suffocating the movement – shrinking space for women’s rights”.

Link to webiste

The 37th session of the UN Human Rights Council is taking place in Geneva from February 26th until March 23rd. See the full programme of work for HRC37 here.

Click here to read the summary of the anticipated sexual rights related resolutionspanels and reportsUPR outcomes, and parallel events taking place during the 37th session put together by the Sexual Rights Initative.

This session also marks the 70th anniversary of the Universal Declaration of Human Rights and the 25th anniversary of the Vienna Declaration and Programme of Action. To mark this occasion a high level panel discussion on what can be done to make human rights popular again in times of increased populism and skepticism will take place on March 6th: Beyond jargon: Reframing our communication on human rights.

The United Nations Human Rights Deputy High Commissioner Kate Gilmore and Council of Europe Commissioner for Human Rights Nils Muižnieks are among speaker, click here for details. Those who will not be in Geneva in person can watch the panel live on Facebook.

Source: UNHRC

Civil society organisations in the European Union play a crucial role in promoting fundamental rights, but it has become harder for them to do so – due to both legal and practical restrictions. This report looks at the different types and patterns of challenges faced by civil society organisations working on human rights in the EU.

While challenges exist in all EU Member States, their exact nature and extent vary. Data and research on this issue – including comparative research – are generally lacking. The report also highlights promising practices that can counteract these worrying patterns.

Access the report by the European Union Agency for Fundamental Rights HERE

Source: FRA

UN Women launched its flagship report, “Turning promises into action: Gender equality in the 2030 Agenda for Sustainable Development”. The report demonstrates through concrete evidence and data the pervasive nature of discrimination against all women and girls everywhere, and puts forth actionable recommendations on how to fulfil the 2030 Agenda for Sustainable Development.

Two and a half years after the adoption of the 2030 Agenda, this first-of-its-kind report examines through a gender lens the progress and challenges in the implementation of all 17 Sustainable Development Goals (SDGs). The Agenda’s focus on peace, equality and sustainability provides a powerful counter-narrative to the current rise of conflict, exclusion and environmental degradation. Yet, women are up against an unprecedented set of challenges in all these areas, and urgent action is needed to address them.


The worsening state of SRHR in Poland has brought multiple reactions from international human rights bodies. Please below find here the most crucial observations and recommendations.


In a letter addressed to the Prime Minister of Poland, the Commissioner refers to recent developments affecting the independence of the judiciary; women’s access to sexual and reproductive rights; the deteriorating  environment for NGOs active in the area of women’s rights and assistance to victims of domestic violence; and attacks against the independence and effectiveness of the Ombudsman.

Regarding women’s rights, the Commissioner regrets that new barriers are being created to hinder women’s access to comprehensive sexuality education, emergency contraception and abortion care. He urges the authorities to repeal any retrogressive laws and to reject any legislative or policy proposals which would weaken women’s sexual and reproductive health and rights. Here the main fragment related to SRHR:

“Another issue which I regularly address in my country work and which is of direct relevance for Poland are women’s sexual and reproductive health and rights. In my 2016 report on Poland, I made a number of  recommendations regarding women’s access to sexuality education, contraception and safe and legal abortion care. My observations and recent exchanges with interlocutors in Poland left me with the impression that the situation in all these fields has worsened since the publication of my report. In particular, I have learned that the provision of comprehensive sexuality education that is respectful of relevant human rights standards is still not ensured. I have also been informed of the recent reintroduction of the requirement that all women obtain medical prescriptions for emergency contraception , abolishing previous policies that had allowed the purchase of some forms of emergency contraception over the counter in pharmacies. This is a move that goes against the recommendation I made to remove barriers in access to contraception for all women in Poland.


On Wednesday January 10th the Polish Parliament rejected the pro-choice civic initiative project to liberalize the abortion law (read more here: and here:, but voted to support opposite proposal (read more here: which aims to tighten this law even further by excluding foetal anomaly from legitimate reasons for abortion.

Polish abortion law is one of the strictest in Europe. While getting legal abortion today is almost impossible, excluding fatal foetal abnormality in reality will make it totally illegal. Approximate 90% of all abortions, if at all, are performed for this reason.

This fundamentalist project has not been voted yet, but for now directed for further work in parliamentary commissions. 

The fully revised UN International technical guidance on sexuality education advocates for quality comprehensive sexuality education (CSE) published by UNESCOUNAIDSUNFPAUNICEFUN Women and World Health Organization (WHO) aims to promote health and well-being, respect for human rights and gender equality, and empowers children and young people to lead healthy, safe and productive lives. These revised guidelines have a stronger focus on human rights and on marginalized populations than the previous guidelines from 2009.

It is a technical tool that presents the evidence base and rationale for delivering CSE to young people in order to achieve the global Sustainable Development Goals, among which are SGD3 for Health, SDG4 for Quality Education and SDG5 for Gender Equality.

The Technical Guidance clarifies the definition and content of comprehensive sexuality education, outlining key concepts, topics and learning objectives which should guide the development of locally-adapted curricula for learners aged 5 – 18+. These include: Relationships; Values, rights, culture and sexuality; Understanding gender; Violence and staying safe; Skills for health and well-being; The human body and development; Sexuality and sexual behavior; and Sexual and reproductive health. The Technical Guidance also includes recommendations for all stages of CSE programme development, from planning and delivery, to monitoring, evaluation and scale up.

Access it here:

7th January 1993 Act on Family Planning, Human Embryo Protection and Conditions of Legal Pregnancy Termination (later: the Act) has had a detrimental effect on women’s reproductive and sexual health and rights  for 25 years. Due to the anniversary and upcoming debates about two abortion-related citizens’ bills[1] in the Parliament, the Federation for Women and Family Planning has launched  the  #25YearsOfWomen’sHell campaign so as to illustrate  the  fictional character of the Act and its multiple negative effects. 

80 pro-choice organizations have supported and signed the Federation’s statement concerning the “Save women” bill on women’s rights and conscious parenthood so as to appeal to the MPs for a fact-based, open-minded and genuine debate in the Parliament as well as for a vote in favour of the bill.
#ConstantBreachesOfTheAct No provisions of the Act have been effectively carried out. There is no science-based comprehensive sexuality education, no free access to modern and affordable contraception, information and pre-natal examinations or family planning counselling, and women do not obtain appropriate medical, social and legal care.   
#EffectsOfPenalization Despite this fact and countless recommendations from the Federation, the Government has never presented any analysis of the Act’s impact. The key consequences are:
  • poor accessibility of legal abortion services,
  • abortion underground,
  • abortion migration,
  • black market of abortion pills and dangerous “home methods”,
  • judgements of the European Court of Human Rights on Poland

#PoorAccessToAbortion Poland has one of the most restrictive abortion laws in Europe[2]. However, hospitals’ arbitrary and unlawful procedures, abusive performance of conscientious objection, lack of proper information for patients, criminalization of abortion, stigmatizing environment and a strong “chilling effect” on doctors lead to the situation when pregnant women have practically a very limited access to safe medical services in public hospitals and consequently seek an abortion in unsafe conditions of so-called “abortion underground” which already has enormous quantity. Women’s access to abortion services can also be impeded by a number of other factors such as a) limited access to information, adequate transport and/or child care, b) living in rural areas or far from Warsaw or other large cities, c) disadvantaged socio-economic position, d) being exposed to various forms of violence. The repressing nature of the law generates many barriers – denial of obligatory certificates of eligibility, questioning their validity, demanding additional documents, unjustified prolongation of formalities, delaying tactics, difficulties finding a doctor without conscious objection, long waiting periods, misinterpretation of the Act, misrepresentation of the gestational age, breach of the principle of confidentiality by medical staff, requirement of certainty of foetal impairment  in disregard of the law which only requires “a high probability”. The lack of timely and effective complaint procedures for women to establish their entitlement to legal abortion services is another key shortcoming.

#AbortionUnderground&Migration According to the estimates, there are 80-150 thousands of illegal abortions every year. Many women seek clandestine and unsafe abortions, self-administer the abortion pill, or travel to another country to access abortion services. In case of clandestine abortions, there is no way to verify the actual qualifications of the person who carries out the procedure, nor the hygiene and sanitary conditions in which abortion takes place. There is neither professional postabortion care, or any real possibility of complaint in cases of medical malpractice, complications or other harm.Many abortion pills  distributed by Polish venders via the Internet are not subject to any safety control and some drugs of unidentified origin and composition are offered.There is no comprehensive data on the number of Polish women who undergo abortion outside Poland. Safe abortions abroad are not available to all women due to the cost of the procedure itself (e.g. EUR 400 in Slovakia or EUR 450 in Germany), the cost of travel, the need to take a few days off work, and/or the need to have someone to look after their children.

#ReproductiveInjustice Economically and socially disadvantaged women are most severely affected by the 1993 Act and its implementation, also because they cannot afford private health insurance which provide better access to reproductive health services. Within the public health system in Poland they often cannot afford contraceptives, including emergency contraception. Some try to induce miscarriage by taking different kinds of drugs, using dangerous means or tools, or by hurting themselves. Others may risk their physical or mental health by continuing pregnancy and giving birth.

#RestrictedContraception Organs of government administration and of local self-government have failed to ensure that citizens have easy access to means and methods of conscious procreation. Contraception is not subsidized by the state, apart from one scientifically outdated hormonal medication. There are no family planning centers. Oral contraceptives and morning-after-pills are prescription-only, and such prescriptions are frequently denied by doctors on the grounds of conscientious objection. The relatively high cost of modern contraceptives is compounded by the cost of a private medical consultation as well as any necessary medical tests. Moreover, pharmacists (who are not entitled to conscientious objection)  have been denying women access to contraception and emergency contraception.

#PrenatalTesting Despite the fact that in Poland the access to prenatal examinations has improved somewhat over the past years due to the implementation of the “Programme of Prenatal testing”, women are still not provided with free access to pre-natal examinations and to relevant information as guaranteed in the Act – e.g. due to conscious objection or lack of knowledge among doctors about the programme. The Supreme Audit Office (NIK), in its audit report focused on the prenatal tests, pointed to several major barriers that limit women’s access to prenatal testing, including the minimum age requirement and lack of referral of women meeting the legal requirements. Women in rural areas often face particular difficulties accessing these tests.

#SexualityEducation Ministry-approved textbooks for “Preparation for Family Life” reflect Catholic views and a stereotypical, heteronormative view of the family and gender roles. They reinforce social stigma against abortion and unscientific views of reproductive health. Classes are often taught by persons who lack subject matter qualification.

#StigmatizedRapeSurvivors Women who have become pregnant following sexual assault encounter additional barriers in access to legal abortion services. They often fear reporting the crime and being exposed to harassment or blamed for the crime. Survivors of sexual violence are frequently viewed with suspicion or discouraged to report the crime. Moreover, they often face greater difficulties in obtaining the required prosecutor’s certificate. While there are many criminal acts that might result in a pregnancy[3] and more than 4.000 crimes of this type are noted every year, there are very few terminations of a pregnancy that resulted from an unlawful act (e.g. one abortion in 2016).

#InternationalSupport The phenomenon invisible to the public administration however is clearly recognized by the international organizations and institutions – both non-governmental and intergovernmental. Within 25 years of the anti-abortion law, Poland was repeatedly asked and drawn attention to the problem of abortion underground, its scale, scope  and impact of its existence by the UN Human Rights Council; UN Special Rapporteur on the Right to Health; The Commissioner for Human Rights; The European Court of Human Rights in Strasbourg; Committee Against Torture; The European Parliament; and many others.

#ECHR The European Court of Human Rights  delivered three judgments against Poland identifying violations of reproductive rights related to prenatal testing and abortion. None of these judgments has been implemented, yet the state had to pay compensation in the total amount of 131 000 EUR. Two European Court of Human Rights’ decisions state that Poland violated women’s right to stay free from inhumane and degrading treatment in cases of access to legal abortion and prenatal diagnosis (P. and S. v. Poland and R.R. v. Poland).

[1] The first reading of the “Save women” bill on women’s rights and conscious parenthood will be held on January, 9-10.  Another debate on the “Stop abortion” bill has to take place until the end of February, but the exact date remains unknown.

[2] Pregnancy termination can be performed only by a doctor, when: 1) the pregnancy imperils the life or health of the pregnant woman; 2) pre-natal examinations or other medical conditions indicate that there is a high likelihood of a severe and irreparable handicap of the fetus or an incurable illness threatening its life; 3) there are reasons to suspect that the pregnancy is a result of an unlawful act.

[3] rape, sexual abuse of dependence, sexual exploitation or abuse of helplessness or trust, sexual exploitation of a minor, incest, forced prostitution and abuse of close relationship with another person (in cases where sexual violence is a part of it)

Source: Federation for Women and Family Planning

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