ASTRA Central and Eastern European Women’s Network for Sexual and Reproductive Rights and Health

Jan 11 2018

On Wednesday January 10th the Polish Parliament rejected the pro-choice civic initiative project to liberalize the abortion law (read more here: and here:, but voted to support opposite proposal (read more here: which aims to tighten this law even further by excluding foetal anomaly from legitimate reasons for abortion.

Polish abortion law is one of the strictest in Europe. While getting legal abortion today is almost impossible, excluding fatal foetal abnormality in reality will make it totally illegal. Approximate 90% of all abortions, if at all, are performed for this reason.

This fundamentalist project has not been voted yet, but for now directed for further work in parliamentary commissions. 

Jan 10 2018

The fully revised UN International technical guidance on sexuality education advocates for quality comprehensive sexuality education (CSE) published by UNESCOUNAIDSUNFPAUNICEFUN Women and World Health Organization (WHO) aims to promote health and well-being, respect for human rights and gender equality, and empowers children and young people to lead healthy, safe and productive lives. These revised guidelines have a stronger focus on human rights and on marginalized populations than the previous guidelines from 2009.

It is a technical tool that presents the evidence base and rationale for delivering CSE to young people in order to achieve the global Sustainable Development Goals, among which are SGD3 for Health, SDG4 for Quality Education and SDG5 for Gender Equality.

The Technical Guidance clarifies the definition and content of comprehensive sexuality education, outlining key concepts, topics and learning objectives which should guide the development of locally-adapted curricula for learners aged 5 – 18+. These include: Relationships; Values, rights, culture and sexuality; Understanding gender; Violence and staying safe; Skills for health and well-being; The human body and development; Sexuality and sexual behavior; and Sexual and reproductive health. The Technical Guidance also includes recommendations for all stages of CSE programme development, from planning and delivery, to monitoring, evaluation and scale up.

Access it here:

Jan 08 2018

7th January 1993 Act on Family Planning, Human Embryo Protection and Conditions of Legal Pregnancy Termination (later: the Act) has had a detrimental effect on women’s reproductive and sexual health and rights  for 25 years. Due to the anniversary and upcoming debates about two abortion-related citizens’ bills[1] in the Parliament, the Federation for Women and Family Planning has launched  the  #25YearsOfWomen’sHell campaign so as to illustrate  the  fictional character of the Act and its multiple negative effects. 

80 pro-choice organizations have supported and signed the Federation’s statement concerning the “Save women” bill on women’s rights and conscious parenthood so as to appeal to the MPs for a fact-based, open-minded and genuine debate in the Parliament as well as for a vote in favour of the bill.
#ConstantBreachesOfTheAct No provisions of the Act have been effectively carried out. There is no science-based comprehensive sexuality education, no free access to modern and affordable contraception, information and pre-natal examinations or family planning counselling, and women do not obtain appropriate medical, social and legal care.   
#EffectsOfPenalization Despite this fact and countless recommendations from the Federation, the Government has never presented any analysis of the Act’s impact. The key consequences are:
  • poor accessibility of legal abortion services,
  • abortion underground,
  • abortion migration,
  • black market of abortion pills and dangerous “home methods”,
  • judgements of the European Court of Human Rights on Poland

#PoorAccessToAbortion Poland has one of the most restrictive abortion laws in Europe[2]. However, hospitals’ arbitrary and unlawful procedures, abusive performance of conscientious objection, lack of proper information for patients, criminalization of abortion, stigmatizing environment and a strong “chilling effect” on doctors lead to the situation when pregnant women have practically a very limited access to safe medical services in public hospitals and consequently seek an abortion in unsafe conditions of so-called “abortion underground” which already has enormous quantity. Women’s access to abortion services can also be impeded by a number of other factors such as a) limited access to information, adequate transport and/or child care, b) living in rural areas or far from Warsaw or other large cities, c) disadvantaged socio-economic position, d) being exposed to various forms of violence. The repressing nature of the law generates many barriers – denial of obligatory certificates of eligibility, questioning their validity, demanding additional documents, unjustified prolongation of formalities, delaying tactics, difficulties finding a doctor without conscious objection, long waiting periods, misinterpretation of the Act, misrepresentation of the gestational age, breach of the principle of confidentiality by medical staff, requirement of certainty of foetal impairment  in disregard of the law which only requires “a high probability”. The lack of timely and effective complaint procedures for women to establish their entitlement to legal abortion services is another key shortcoming.

#AbortionUnderground&Migration According to the estimates, there are 80-150 thousands of illegal abortions every year. Many women seek clandestine and unsafe abortions, self-administer the abortion pill, or travel to another country to access abortion services. In case of clandestine abortions, there is no way to verify the actual qualifications of the person who carries out the procedure, nor the hygiene and sanitary conditions in which abortion takes place. There is neither professional postabortion care, or any real possibility of complaint in cases of medical malpractice, complications or other harm.Many abortion pills  distributed by Polish venders via the Internet are not subject to any safety control and some drugs of unidentified origin and composition are offered.There is no comprehensive data on the number of Polish women who undergo abortion outside Poland. Safe abortions abroad are not available to all women due to the cost of the procedure itself (e.g. EUR 400 in Slovakia or EUR 450 in Germany), the cost of travel, the need to take a few days off work, and/or the need to have someone to look after their children.

#ReproductiveInjustice Economically and socially disadvantaged women are most severely affected by the 1993 Act and its implementation, also because they cannot afford private health insurance which provide better access to reproductive health services. Within the public health system in Poland they often cannot afford contraceptives, including emergency contraception. Some try to induce miscarriage by taking different kinds of drugs, using dangerous means or tools, or by hurting themselves. Others may risk their physical or mental health by continuing pregnancy and giving birth.

#RestrictedContraception Organs of government administration and of local self-government have failed to ensure that citizens have easy access to means and methods of conscious procreation. Contraception is not subsidized by the state, apart from one scientifically outdated hormonal medication. There are no family planning centers. Oral contraceptives and morning-after-pills are prescription-only, and such prescriptions are frequently denied by doctors on the grounds of conscientious objection. The relatively high cost of modern contraceptives is compounded by the cost of a private medical consultation as well as any necessary medical tests. Moreover, pharmacists (who are not entitled to conscientious objection)  have been denying women access to contraception and emergency contraception.

#PrenatalTesting Despite the fact that in Poland the access to prenatal examinations has improved somewhat over the past years due to the implementation of the “Programme of Prenatal testing”, women are still not provided with free access to pre-natal examinations and to relevant information as guaranteed in the Act – e.g. due to conscious objection or lack of knowledge among doctors about the programme. The Supreme Audit Office (NIK), in its audit report focused on the prenatal tests, pointed to several major barriers that limit women’s access to prenatal testing, including the minimum age requirement and lack of referral of women meeting the legal requirements. Women in rural areas often face particular difficulties accessing these tests.

#SexualityEducation Ministry-approved textbooks for “Preparation for Family Life” reflect Catholic views and a stereotypical, heteronormative view of the family and gender roles. They reinforce social stigma against abortion and unscientific views of reproductive health. Classes are often taught by persons who lack subject matter qualification.

#StigmatizedRapeSurvivors Women who have become pregnant following sexual assault encounter additional barriers in access to legal abortion services. They often fear reporting the crime and being exposed to harassment or blamed for the crime. Survivors of sexual violence are frequently viewed with suspicion or discouraged to report the crime. Moreover, they often face greater difficulties in obtaining the required prosecutor’s certificate. While there are many criminal acts that might result in a pregnancy[3] and more than 4.000 crimes of this type are noted every year, there are very few terminations of a pregnancy that resulted from an unlawful act (e.g. one abortion in 2016).

#InternationalSupport The phenomenon invisible to the public administration however is clearly recognized by the international organizations and institutions – both non-governmental and intergovernmental. Within 25 years of the anti-abortion law, Poland was repeatedly asked and drawn attention to the problem of abortion underground, its scale, scope  and impact of its existence by the UN Human Rights Council; UN Special Rapporteur on the Right to Health; The Commissioner for Human Rights; The European Court of Human Rights in Strasbourg; Committee Against Torture; The European Parliament; and many others.

#ECHR The European Court of Human Rights  delivered three judgments against Poland identifying violations of reproductive rights related to prenatal testing and abortion. None of these judgments has been implemented, yet the state had to pay compensation in the total amount of 131 000 EUR. Two European Court of Human Rights’ decisions state that Poland violated women’s right to stay free from inhumane and degrading treatment in cases of access to legal abortion and prenatal diagnosis (P. and S. v. Poland and R.R. v. Poland).

[1] The first reading of the “Save women” bill on women’s rights and conscious parenthood will be held on January, 9-10.  Another debate on the “Stop abortion” bill has to take place until the end of February, but the exact date remains unknown.

[2] Pregnancy termination can be performed only by a doctor, when: 1) the pregnancy imperils the life or health of the pregnant woman; 2) pre-natal examinations or other medical conditions indicate that there is a high likelihood of a severe and irreparable handicap of the fetus or an incurable illness threatening its life; 3) there are reasons to suspect that the pregnancy is a result of an unlawful act.

[3] rape, sexual abuse of dependence, sexual exploitation or abuse of helplessness or trust, sexual exploitation of a minor, incest, forced prostitution and abuse of close relationship with another person (in cases where sexual violence is a part of it)

Source: Federation for Women and Family Planning

Jan 03 2018

The Sexual Rights Initiative invites you to visit our new and improved Universal Periodic Review Sexual Rights Database. The database allows you to search all the sexual rights related recommendations and references made during UPR sessions at the UN Human Rights Council, including progress on the implementation of accepted recommendations. The database is part of a suite of tools developed by the SRI to support State accountability for the realization of all human rights related to sexuality, reproduction and gender.

Dec 14 2017

“Women’s sexual and reproductive health and rights are human rights. Regrettably, however, women in Europe still have these rights denied or restricted as a result of laws, policies and practices that ultimately reflect continuing gender stereotypes and inequalities. States must acknowledge and address these violations and resolutely commit to advancing gender equality in this crucial sphere of life”, said the Council of Europe Commissioner for Human Rights, Nils Muižnieks, while releasing a report on this topic in early December.

The document provides an overview of states’ obligations under international and European human rights standards in the field of women’s sexual and reproductive health and rights. It provides examples of shortcomings that European states must address in particular as regards the rights to life, health, privacy, non-discrimination as well as the right to be free from torture and ill-treatment, with a particular focus on comprehensive sexuality education, modern contraception, safe and legal abortion care, and quality maternal health care.

The Commissioner sets forth 54 recommendations aimed at helping European states address the pressing need to:

  • renew political commitment to women’s rights and guard against retrogressive measures that undermine women’s sexual and reproductive health and rights;
  • establish health systems that uphold and advance women’s sexual and reproductive health and rights;
  • ensure the provision of comprehensive sexuality education;
  • guarantee the affordability, availability and accessibility of modern contraception;
  • ensure all women’s access to safe and legal abortion care;
  • ensure that refusals of care by health care workers on grounds of conscience or religion do not endanger women’s timely access to sexual and reproductive health care;
  • respect and protect women’s human rights in childbirth and guarantee all women’s access to quality maternal health care;
  • eliminate coercive practices and safeguard women’s informed consent and decision-making in sexual and reproductive health care contexts;
  • ensure all women’s access to effective remedies for violations of their  sexual and reproductive rights;
  • eliminate discrimination in laws, policies and practices and guarantee equality for all women in the enjoyment of sexual and reproductive health and rights.

“Sexual and reproductive rights protect some of the most significant and intimate aspects of our lives. Ensuring these rights for women is a vital component of efforts to achieve women’s rights and gender equality. Given the resurgent trends seeking to roll back protections in this field, we must ensure that we remain committed to these rights, which were established only after a long struggle. States have the duty to provide all women with accessible, affordable, good quality sexual and reproductive health care and services”, said Commissioner Muižnieks.

Read the Issue Paper on women’s sexual and reproductive health and rights

Read the summary of the Issue Paper

See the special page on women’s sexual and reproductive health and rights

Source: CoE

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